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Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/customer/www/prosiectllongauu.cymru/public_html/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

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Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/customer/www/prosiectllongauu.cymru/public_html/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/customer/www/prosiectllongauu.cymru/public_html/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

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Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/customer/www/prosiectllongauu.cymru/public_html/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/customer/www/prosiectllongauu.cymru/public_html/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

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Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/customer/www/prosiectllongauu.cymru/public_html/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_nlist() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/customer/www/prosiectllongauu.cymru/public_html/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 420

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/customer/www/prosiectllongauu.cymru/public_html/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

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Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/customer/www/prosiectllongauu.cymru/public_html/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/customer/www/prosiectllongauu.cymru/public_html/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/customer/www/prosiectllongauu.cymru/public_html/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/customer/www/prosiectllongauu.cymru/public_html/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

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Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/customer/www/prosiectllongauu.cymru/public_html/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/customer/www/prosiectllongauu.cymru/public_html/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

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Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/customer/www/prosiectllongauu.cymru/public_html/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

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Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/customer/www/prosiectllongauu.cymru/public_html/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

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Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/customer/www/prosiectllongauu.cymru/public_html/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

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Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/customer/www/prosiectllongauu.cymru/public_html/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/customer/www/prosiectllongauu.cymru/public_html/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/customer/www/prosiectllongauu.cymru/public_html/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_nlist() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/customer/www/prosiectllongauu.cymru/public_html/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 420

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/customer/www/prosiectllongauu.cymru/public_html/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/customer/www/prosiectllongauu.cymru/public_html/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_nlist() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/customer/www/prosiectllongauu.cymru/public_html/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 420

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/customer/www/prosiectllongauu.cymru/public_html/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

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Yr SS LEYSIAN a’r Gyrwyr Mulod o America – Prosiect Llongau-U 1914-18 | U-boat Project Wales 1914-18

Yr SS LEYSIAN a’r Gyrwyr Mulod o America

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A muleteer handling a mule.

Yr SS LEYSIAN a’r Gyrwyr Mulod o America

Category: Newyddion

Rhwng 7 a 17 Mehefin, bydd un o’n partneriaid yn y Prosiect Llongau-U, y Gymdeithas Archaeoleg Forwrol (NAS), yn cynnal ysgol faes danddwr yn Abercastell, Sir Benfro. Canolbwynt yr ysgol faes fydd llongddrylliad yr SS LEYSIAN a gafodd ei dryllio yno ar 20 Chwefror 1917.

Llun hanesyddol yn dangos y LEYSIAN a’u lleoliad heddiw.
Llun hanesyddol yn dangos y LEYSIAN a’u lleoliad heddiw. Ffynhonnell: NAS.

Hanes cryno’r LEYSIAN

Rhwng 1915 a 1917 câi’r SS LEYSIAN ei defnyddio i gludo mulod (croesiad rhwng ceffyl ac asyn) o New Orleans, UDA, i gefnogi’r milwyr ar y ffrynt yn Ewrop a gogledd Affrica. Byddai gyrwyr mulod o America yn gofalu am y mulod yn ystod y fordaith.

Ar 20 Chwefror 1917, ar ôl dadlwytho cargo o fulod yn Belfast, roedd y LEYSIAN yn dychwelyd i America dan falast pan gafodd ei dryllio ar y clogwyni ym Mae Abercastell.

Erthygl am y LEYSIAN yn Cambrian Daily Leader.
Cambrian Daily Leader, 22 Chwefror 1917. Ffynhonnell: Papurau Newydd Cymru Arlein, Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru.

Y gred yw bod tua 50 o yrwyr mulod ar fwrdd y llong, yr oedd Americanwyr croenddu yn eu plith mae’n debyg, wedi gwrthryfela.

Bywyd gyrrwr mulod ar fwrdd llong

Gyrrwr mul gydag un o’r anifeiliaid.
Mae’r argraff arlunydd yn dangos gyrrwr mul gydag un o’r anifeiliaid. Ffynhonnell: Helen Rowe.

Mae cytundeb llong ar gyfer y LEYSIAN dyddiedig Mehefin 1915 yn rhestru enwau 63 o yrwyr mulod Americanaidd. Mae’r nodiadau mewn llawysgrifen ar dudalen flaen y cytundeb yn cynnwys y cyfarwyddiadau canlynol i’r gyrwyr mulod:

    • Roeddynt i ufuddhau i orchmynion y capten neu’r swyddog â gofal.
    • Roeddynt i roi bwyd a dŵr i’r mulod a chadw’r stablau mewn cyflwr ardderchog gan ddilyn cyfarwyddyd y fforman â gofal.
    • Roeddynt i fwydo’r mulod nes iddynt adael y llong ac i roi pob cymorth wrth ddadlwytho’r anifeiliaid, ac roeddynt yn gyffredinol i ddilyn holl gyfarwyddiadau’r capten neu’r swyddog a oedd yn gyfrifol am y llong.
    • Ar ôl dadlwytho’r mulod roeddynt i lanhau’r stablau’n drwyadl.
    • Byddai lwfans o ugain swllt y mis yn cael ei dalu am fentro eu bywydau i bob llongwr heblaw am farchogion a gweithredwyr Marconi.

Mae manylion diddorol iawn am fywyd gyrwyr mulod ar fwrdd y llongau i’w cael mewn datganiad gan J. M. Garret, gyrrwr mulod ar y NICOSIAN a gipiwyd gan long-U ym 1915. Meddai:

Roedd y cytundeb yn gofyn i mi roi porthiant a dŵr i’r anifeiliaid a glanhau’r stolion ar orchymyn y fforman neu gapten y llong. Pe byddwn i’n methu â dilyn gorchymyn byddwn i’n cael dirwy o ddoler am bob trosedd.

Roedd gofyn i bob gyrrwr mulod ofalu am ryw ddeuddeg i ugain o anifeiliaid. Roeddynt wedi’u cyfyngau i’w stolion ac ni châi’r rhain eu glanhau nes i’r mulod adael y llong. Roedd pared o blanciau pren rhwng y stablau a’r lleoedd cysgu ac roedd yr arogl yn ffiaidd.

Y gwely oedd bync o blanciau gyda matres llawn naddion coed drosto, un flanced wlân a chlustog naddion. Y bwyd oedd tatws o Iwerddon, cig wedi difetha, a chawl pys. Coffi yn y bore a the yn y nos, ac un fynsen fach ddwywaith y dydd, un yn y bore ac un yn y nos. I ginio fe fyddem ni’n cael cwpan tun o gawl pys, sleisen fach o gig, a thair neu bedair o datws. Brecwast oedd cwpan o goffi a bynsen fach. I swper byddem yn cael te a thatws wedi’u stiwio. Cig eidion oedd y cig i fod. Ond rwy’n amau hynny.

Darllenwch y datganiad llawn yma: http://www.vlib.us/wwi/resources/archives/texts/t050925/Baralong.html

Ar ôl dadlwytho’r mulod yn Belfast, roedd y LEYSIAN yn dychwelyd gyda’r gyrwyr mulod i America i nôl llwyth arall o fulod.

Cafodd mwy na 600,000 o geffylau a mulod eu cludo ar longau Prydeinig o America yn ystod y Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf. Bu farw tua 2,700 o’r anifeiliaid hyn pan suddwyd y llongau roeddynt yn teithio arnynt gan longau-U a llongau rhyfel eraill. Ystyriwyd eu bod yn gargo ac nid colledigion. I gael mwy o wybodaeth ewch i: https://www.nam.ac.uk/explore/british-army-horses-during-first-world-war

 

‘Agreement and Account of Crew’ y LEYSIAN yn Mehefin 1915.
‘Agreement and Account of Crew’ y LEYSIAN yn Mehefin 1915. Ffynonnell: The National Archives, Kew.

Rhai ffeithiau

Marwolaeth gyrrwr mulod ar y LEYSIAN – Cafodd J Macdonald, o Newport News, gyrrwr mulod ar y LEYSIAN, ei foddi ar 21 Rhagfyr 1915. Ni wyddom ddim am yr amgylchiadau.

Yr SS ARMENIAN – Cafodd ugain gyrrwr mulod croenddu Americanaidd ar yr ARMENIAN, un o deithlongau cwmni White Star, eu lladd ar 28 Mehefin 1915 pan ymosododd yr U 24 ar y llong. Cafodd y llong, a oedd yn cario cargo o 1,422 o fulod i’r fyddin, ei suddo oddi ar arfordir Cernyw. Y gred yw bod y gyrwyr mulod wedi boddi gan iddynt ddewis aros gyda’u mulod yn hytrach na dianc gyda gweddill y criw. I gael mwy o wybodaeth ewch i: https://www.wrecksite.eu/wreck.aspx?11109

Dedfrydu gyrrwr mulod am lofruddiaeth: Cafodd Young Hill, gyrrwr mulod croenddu o America, ei ddedfrydu i grogi am lofruddio llongwr croenddu arall ar 29 Gorffennaf 1915 pan oedd eu llong wedi’i hangori yn Canada Dock, Lerpwl. Argymhellodd y rheithgor y dylid dangos trugaredd gan ei fod yn ddinesydd Americanaidd. I gael mwy o wybodaeth ewch i: https://raceanddeathpenalty.wordpress.com/2018/10/04/younghill/

O feysydd cotwm y de, UDA: Yn ystod y cyfnod hwn, mulod dan ofal Americanwyr croenddu a weithiai’r rhan fwyaf o’r meysydd cotwm. Sefydlodd asiant Prydain arolygiaeth ar gyfer prynu mulod yn Nashville, Tennessee ym mis Medi 1915. O’r Unol Daleithiau y daeth y mwyafrif llethol o’r mulod a ddefnyddiwyd gan y Prydeinwyr. Cafodd cannoedd ar filoedd ohonynt eu cludo i Ewrop ar longau o New Orleans a Newport News. Bu farw llawer ohonynt ar fwrdd llongau a suddwyd gan longau-U, gan gynnwys yr SS ARMENIAN (ym 1915) a’r SS JAPANESE PRINCE (ym 1917).

Cafodd mwy na 600,000 o geffylau a mulod eu cludo ar longau Prydeinig o America yn ystod y Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf. Bu farw tua 2,700 o’r anifeiliaid hyn pan suddwyd y llongau roeddynt yn teithio arnynt gan longau-U a llongau rhyfel eraill. I gael mwy o wybodaeth ewch i: https://www.nam.ac.uk/explore/british-army-horses-during-first-world-war

Bydd un o’n partneriaid yn y Prosiect Llongau-U, y Gymdeithas Archaeoleg Forwrol (NAS), yn cynnal ysgol faes danddwr yn Abercastell, Sir Benfro. Canolbwynt yr ysgol faes fydd llongddrylliad yr SS LEYSIAN a gafodd ei dryllio yno ar yr 20fed o Chwefror 1917.

Dewch i ddarganfod mwy am ysgol faes danddwr yr SS LEYSIAN yn Abercastell, Sir Benfro ac am y Prosiect Llongau-U. Bydd tîm y prosiect yno rhwng 9.30 a 4.30 ar dydd Sadwrn 15 a dydd Sul 16 Mehefin.
Arddangosiadau a gweithgareddau hwyliog i bob oedran!